How are MPs and MLAs elected in India?

The Union or Central Government, which makes up the first tier of the three-tiered Indian system of government, has the highest executive position.

The State Government, which makes up the second tier of the federal structure, receives some powers from the Union Government.

Under the administration of the governing political party, the States are granted sole executive authority.

The Panchayats and Municipalities, which are involved in local-level governance, make up the third and final tier.

Every state in India is required to have a legislative body run by its members, known as a Vidhan Sabha (MLA).

MLAs are elected by the residents of an electoral district to serve as the people’s direct representatives (constituency).

The number cannot be greater than 500 nor lower than 60 because each state has seven to nine MLAs for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha.

The MLAs are members of the state’s top legislative body and are akin to Members of Parliament in the Lok Sabha.

Qualifications for becoming an MLA

Legislative (making laws), financial (passing bills, grants, and tax proposals), executive (controlling the in-power government), and electoral (appointing the President, Rajya Sabha members, and Speaker of the Legislative Assembly) powers are all vested in MLAs.

The following requirements must be met in order to become an MLA:

  • The applicant must be an Indian national.
  • The minimum age requirement is 25.
  • The candidate must be an elector for any constituency in the State he is representing in accordance with the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • The candidate cannot hold a position of interest within the Indian government.
  • The applicant needs to be mentally healthy.
  • According to the Representation of the People Act of 1951, any MLA who has been found guilty and sentenced by a court cannot continue in their position.

MLA Election Procedure:

The voters in a constituency elect the MLAs directly. The process for choosing an MLA is as follows:

  • After the current assembly’s term expires, typically after a period of five years, elections are held.
  • Based on population, each state is divided into various constituencies or designated regions.
  • Voting for candidates in these constituencies is restricted to adults over the age of 18.
  • As long as each candidate meets the requirements, any number of them may run for office from a constituency.
  • Candidates may run in the elections as independents or as members of a particular political party.
  • The candidates must mobilize support for themselves by outlining their plans and addressing the issues important to their supporters.
  • Direct election of the members takes place through the use of the universal adult franchise by the electorate.
  • To ensure that only the voter knows who they have voted for, voting is done by secret ballot.
  • In the event that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the assembly, the Governor of a State has the executive authority to nominate a member.

Once elected, the MLAs serve as the Legislative Assembly’s representatives for their constituents.


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